son of: Andrew I
period of reign: 1063-1074
spouse: Judit
children: -
succesor: Géza I


Solomon – son of King Andrew I and queen Anastasia – was Hungarian king of the Árpád Dynasty between 1063 and 1074. Since his father had hoped for no heirs any more, he appointed his brother, Prince Béla (later King Béla I) as heir to the throne. Even so Andrew I had his son crowned in 1058 with the crown of the Byzantine Empire. After Andrew’s death Solomon was forced to flee to Germany, from where he returned home to Székesfehérvár escorted by the German army in 1063. There he was crowned again. After the German troops had left Prince Géza, Béla I’s son invaded the country. The Hungarian prelates mediated between them in order to reach an agreement. They succeeded in reconciling the two parties insomuch as it was Géza who put the crown on Solomon’s head.

During the first seven years of his reign he ruled mainly under the influence of his pacifist mother. In the first half of the 1070s however, the adult king only took advice from the German lords. This made the situation tenser among Salamon and Béla’s sons.

In 1072 Géza returned from the military campaign against the Greek and realized that the king wanted to entrap him and his younger brothers. Therefore, he immediately sent his brother to Kievan Rus to get external help. Following a few short peace attempts Solomon attacked and defeated Géza, whom the attack took by surprise. However, in 1074, he managed to defeat Solomon, who after a few unsuccessful attacks surrendered to Géza and recognized his power.

Although his victory was absolute, the new king – convinced by the archbishop of Kalocsa – was ready to give back 2/3 of the country to Solomon, keeping only 1/3 to himself. However, Solomon wanted full renouncement, therefore the peace agreement was not reached even when Géza died in 1077 and his younger brother Ladislaus was crowned. Solomon was trying for 10 years to recover the throne, in vain. In the end, as leader of the Hungarian troops he joined the campaign launched by the Pechenegs to seize Constantinople. The battle had been lost in 1087 and Solomon was slaughtered together with his companions.

However, the legend about Solomon says that he escaped, crossed the frozen Danube and lived the rest of his life in pilgrimage, away from his peers.